: Ontario Employment Report

Third Quarter of 2017
(July, August, September)
Ontario Ministry of Finance

Table of Contents

Introduction

About the Ontario Employment Report

The third quarter of 2017 is the first issue of the Ontario Employment Report - a public report, released four times a year that provides an overall assessment of the current trends and developments in the Ontario labour market. The Ontario Employment Report is a companion report to the Ontario Economic Accounts, which provides an overall assessment of the current state of the Ontario economy. Most estimates in the Ontario Employment Report are based on Statistics Canada data. Its primary audience includes economists in both public and private sectors and credit rating agencies.

Methodological note

In the current issue, year-over-year change represents change between the averages in the third quarter of 2016 and the third quarter of 2017. Note that the Ontario Economic Accounts report primarily shows changes between the previous and the current quarter.

This report uses seasonally adjusted data in charts displaying data with a monthly frequency in the Overview and Employment Trends sections.

Unadjusted data is used in charts and tables showing the changes for the current quarter compared with the same quarter for the previous year. Unadjusted data is also used to calculate annual averages, year-to-date averages and 2017 third quarter averages.

Overview

Steady Growth in Ontario’s Labour Market Continues

Year-over-year, Ontario’s third quarter employment increased by 160,000 jobs (+2.3%).

Compared to the previous quarter, employment advanced by 60,400 in the third quarter of 2017, following a gain of 3,700 in the second quarter.

Ontario’s unemployment rate was 5.6% in September 2017, below the national average for the 30th consecutive month.

As of September 2017, employment was 7.8% (+522,000 jobs) above the pre-recession peak and 12.5% (+794,500 jobs) above the recessionary low.  The unemployment rate in September 2017 was 4.0 percentage points below the recessionary level (9.6% in June 2009) and 1.0 percentage point below the pre-recession level (6.6% in October 2008).

Post-Recession Trends: Most New Jobs Are Full-Time

Since the recessionary low (June 2009), Ontario gained 730,900 full-time jobs and 63,400 part-time jobs. Full-time jobs represent over 90% of the growth.

Since June 2009, monthly employment in the service-producing industries has increased by 675,000, while employment in the goods-producing industries has increased by 119,500. Employment in the service-producing industries has been increasing more rapidly than in the goods-producing industries since the early 1980s.

Employment gains have differed across the five main geographic regions of the province. Since the recession, the most rapid gains in employment have occurred in the Greater Toronto Area and Central Ontario.  Northern Ontario has experienced the slowest growth.

Post-Recession Trends: Strong Private Sector Job Growth

The most rapid job growth since the recession has been in the private sector. This sector experienced more job losses during the recession, compared to the public sector and self-employment.

Since June 2009, private sector monthly employment has increased by 569,500 jobs, while self-employment has increased by 119,400 jobs, and public sector employment has increased by 105,500. Private sector jobs represent over 70% of the employment growth.

Since the recessionary employment low, youth (15-24 years old) have gained 71,700 jobs (+8.1%), core-aged population (25-54 years old) have gained 210,400 jobs (+4.7%), while workers aged 55 and older have gained 512,400 jobs (+48.4%).

Since the recession, males have gained more jobs (+447,100) than females (+347,400). During the recession, employment declined more for males than females.

Quarterly Details

Type of Work

Year-over-year, full-time employment increased by 1.9% in the third quarter, while part-time employment grew by 4.1%.

Private sector jobs experienced the largest increase, followed by public sector employment and self-employment over the same period.

Meanwhile, the self-employed recorded the highest growth rate at 2.4%, followed by private sector employees at 2.3% and public sector employees at 2.1%.

Above-average wage industries experienced the most rapid employment growth at 2.7%, while below-average industries grew by 1.9%, year-over-year.

Sector and Occupation

Year-over-year, employment gains were driven by significant growth in the service-producing sector, while goods-producing sector employment also increased.

Overall, the professional, scientific & technical services industry gained the most jobs and also experienced the most rapid growth (+8.6%). The business, building & other support services industry had the largest decline in employment year-over-year.

Among goods-producing industries, the manufacturing sector added the most jobs, growing by 2.2% over the same period. Agriculture experienced the largest employment decline.

On a year-over-year basis, management occupations were the category with the largest employment increase, while health occupations exhibited the strongest rate of growth at 10.5%. Other occupation categories with positive employment were sales and service occupations; natural and applied science and related occupations; business, finance and administration occupations; and natural resources, agriculture and related occupations.

Employment in the remaining occupational categories has decreased at varying rates, with the largest percentage decline in occupations in education, law and social, community and government services.

Geographic Region

Year-over-year, employment in Central Ontario increased the most, at 6.6%, followed by the Greater Toronto Area with a rise of 2.1% and Northern Ontario at 1.0%.

Two of the five Ontario regions experienced employment declines year-over-year: Eastern Ontario  (-1.9%) and Southwestern Ontario (-0.6%).

In the third quarter, unemployment rates ranged from 5.1% in Central Ontario to 6.5% in Eastern Ontario and Northern Ontario.

Quarterly labour force participation rates varied considerably among the economic regions. In the third quarter, participation rates ranged from 66.9% in Central Ontario to 61.1% in Northern Ontario.

Age Groups

Compared to the same quarter last year, workers aged 55 and older gained the most jobs, followed by core-aged (25-54 years old) workers and youth (15-24 years old). Both youth (+3.6%) and older workers (+4.6%) experienced above-average employment growth year-over-year.

In the third quarter, older workers had the lowest unemployment rate at 4.1% and the unemployment rate of core-aged workers was 5.4%. The unemployment rate of youth was 11.3%, the highest among the three major age groups.

In the third quarter, core-aged workers had the highest participation rate at 85.4%, followed by youth at 64.9% and older workers at 38.4%.

Socio-Demographic Characteristics

Year-over-year, core-aged workers (25-54 years old) born in Canada gained the most jobs in the third quarter of 2017, followed by recent immigrants (10 years or less in Canada), while the number of jobs held by established immigrants decreased.

Among core-aged population by educational attainment, high school graduates gained the majority of jobs, followed by university graduates. Conversely, employment among holders of a postsecondary certificate/diploma declined. Employment of those with below high school education also declined.

Year-over-year, core-aged women gained the most jobs, with employment gains of 1.5%, while core-aged men (+1.0%) also saw employment grow.

In the third quarter, core-aged workers born in Canada had the lowest unemployment rate, while recent immigrants had the highest unemployment rate among the three major groups by immigrant status. Those with a postsecondary certificate/diploma had the lowest unemployment rate (4.7%) in the third quarter, followed by university graduates (5.2%), high school graduates (6.2%) and those lacking a high school diploma (8.8%). The unemployment rate of core-aged women exceeded that of core-aged men by 1.3 percentage points.

In the third quarter, core-aged recent immigrants had the lowest labour force participation rate, while those born in Canada had the highest rate. Among core-aged groups by educational attainment, university graduates had the highest labour force participation rate and those lacking a high school diploma had the lowest rate. The female labour force participation rate was 9.4 percentage points below that of men.

In Focus

Increasing Employment Rates for Older Workers

Employment rates of older workers (55 and over) have been increasing since the mid-1990s. Employment rates of 55-59 year old and 60-64 year old workers reached historic highs of 71.8% and 52.6% in 2016. The employment rate of workers aged 65 and over reached a historic high of 14.0% in 2014 and 2015, and edged down to 13.9% in 2016.

The unemployment rate for older workers has been steadily declining since 2009 and stood at 4.9% in 2016 and 4.7% in the first three quarters of 2017. Workers aged 65 and over continue to have lower unemployment rates, compared to 55-59 and 60-64 year olds.

The majority of employed older workers work full-time. In 2016, 77.5% of older workers were in full-time employment. Working full-time is less frequent with increasing age.

While unemployment rates are lower for older workers, they are more likely to be longer term unemployed compared to the younger age groups. More than a third of unemployed older workers are long-term unemployed. The share of older workers unemployed on a long-term basis (27 weeks or longer) in the province increased from 31.1% in 2015 to 33.9% in 2016, and 34.4% in the first three quarters of 2017.

Data Table

Overview of Annual Employment Ten-Year Review

  2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Total Labour Force (000) 6992 7074 7080 7161 7227 7276 7384 7419 7426 7490
Participation Rate (%) 67.7 67.7 67.0 66.8 66.6 66.2 66.3 65.8 65.2 65.0
Male Participation Rate (%) 72.5 72.5 71.5 71.1 71.1 70.7 70.5 70.3 70.0 69.5
Female Participation Rate (%) 63.2 63.1 62.6 62.8 62.3 61.9 62.2 61.6 60.7 60.7
Total Employment (000) 6546 6610 6433 6538 6658 6703 6823 6878 6923 7000
Employment - Full-time (000)  5351 5367 5174 5256 5374 5412 5490 5540 5618 5673
Employment - Part-time (000)  1194 1244 1259 1282 1285 1291 1334 1338 1305 1327
Employment-Population Ratio (%) 63.4 63.3 60.9 61.0 61.4 60.9 61.2 61.0 60.8 60.7
Male Employment (000) 3411 3445 3301 3364 3450 3472 3523 3567 3607 3636
Female Employment (000) 3135 3165 3132 3174 3208 3231 3301 3311 3316 3364
Part-Time (% of total)  18.2 18.8 19.6 19.6 19.3 19.3 19.6 19.5 18.8 19.0
Private Sector Employment (000) 4366 4346 4195 4268 4340 4373 4447 4517 4541 4597
Public Sector Employment (000) 1196 1261 1233 1255 1294 1286 1314 1305 1294 1306
Self-Employment (% of total) 15.0 15.2 15.6 15.5 15.4 15.6 15.6 15.3 15.7 15.7
Total Unemployment (000) 446 464 648 623 569 574 560 541 503 490
Unemployment Rate (%) 6.4 6.6 9.1 8.7 7.9 7.9 7.6 7.3 6.8 6.5
Male Unemployment Rate (%) 6.8 6.9 10.5 9.4 8.2 8.3 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.8
Female Unemployment Rate (%) 6.0 6.2 7.7 8.0 7.6 7.5 7.2 7.1 6.5 6.3
Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total) 13.0 13.7 18.8 24.9 24.1 22.7 22.9 22.8 20.0 19.9
Average Unemployment in Weeks 14.6 14.8 18.4 22.0 22.4 22.2 21.8 22.4 20.0 19.9
Youth Unemployment Rate (%) 12.9 13.8 17.6 17.4 15.9 17.0 16.2 15.7 14.7 14.0
25-54 y.o. Unemployment rate (%) 5.2 5.3 7.8 7.3 6.5 6.4 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.4
55+ y.o. Unemployment rate (%) 4.7 4.9 6.6 6.4 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.3 4.9 4.9
Average Weekly Wage Rate ($) 784.13 813.07 828.35 842.35 862.45 883.12 895.56 907.17 938.09 958.50
Average Hourly Wage Rate ($) 21.23 22.09 22.66 23.09 23.55 24.09 24.48 24.82 25.59 26.15
Source: Statistics Canada.

Overview of Quarterly Employment Year-over-Year

  2015q4 2016q4 2016q1 2017q1 2016q2 2017q2 2016q3 2017q3
Total Labour Force (000) 7409 7469 7385 7459 7544 7603 7560 7659
Participation Rate (%) 64.8 64.5 64.4 64.2 65.6 65.2 65.5 65.4
Male Participation Rate (%) 69.4 69.0 68.8 68.6 69.9 69.6 70.3 69.9
Female Participation Rate (%) 60.4 60.2 60.2 60.0 61.5 61.0 60.9 61.1
Total Employment (000) 6948 7042 6872 6972 7047 7130 7037 7197
Employment - Full-time (000)  5629 5649 5516 5584 5722 5799 5804 5914
Employment - Part-time (000)  1320 1393 1357 1389 1326 1330 1233 1283
Employment-Population Ratio (%) 60.8 60.8 59.9 60.0 61.3 61.2 61.0 61.5
Male Employment (000) 3616 3669 3545 3614 3645 3700 3684 3759
Female Employment (000) 3333 3372 3327 3358 3402 3430 3353 3438
Part-Time (% of total)  19.0 19.8 19.7 19.9 18.8 18.7 17.5 17.8
Private Sector Employment (000) 4556 4628 4467 4562 4612 4667 4682 4790
Public Sector Employment (000) 1289 1322 1310 1333 1335 1351 1259 1285
Self-Employment (% of total) 15.9 15.5 15.9 15.5 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6
Total Unemployment (000) 461 428 512 487 497 473 523 462
Unemployment Rate (%) 6.2 5.7 6.9 6.5 6.6 6.2 6.9 6.0
Male Unemployment Rate (%) 6.4 5.8 7.8 7.0 6.9 6.5 6.8 5.9
Female Unemployment Rate (%) 6.0 5.7 6.0 6.0 6.3 5.9 7.1 6.2
Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)  22.9 20.6 19.7 20.3 19.6 19.0 19.9 18.2
Average Unemployment in Weeks 21.6 20.1 19.6 20.4 20.1 18.9 20.1 17.9
Youth Unemployment Rate (%) 13.0 12.6 13.9 14.7 14.5 13.3 15.0 11.3
25-54 y.o. Unemployment rate (%) 5.2 4.7 6.0 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.6 5.4
55+ y.o. Unemployment rate (%) 4.8 4.3 5.5 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.1
Average Weekly Wage Rate ($) 949.81 956.30 959.29 957.27 958.34 962.03 960.09 970.13
Average Hourly Wage Rate ($) 25.96 26.23 26.27 26.34 26.12 26.28 25.99 26.28
Source: Statistics Canada.

Graphic Descriptions

Overview: Ontario’s Labour Force

The chart indicates the change in Ontario’s employment in the third quarter of 2017, compared to the previous quarter and the same quarter a year ago, and unemployment rate in September 2017. In the third quarter of 2017, Ontario’s employment rose by 60,400 net new jobs, compared to the second quarter, and by 160,000 net new jobs, compared to the same quarter in the previous year. The unemployment rate was 5.6% in September 2017.

Return to graphic

Overview: Ontario’s Labour Market Strengthening

The combination line and area chart show Ontario’s unemployment rate (line chart) and employment (area chart) from January 2008 to September 2017. Ontario’s unemployment rate has trended downwards since the recession, reaching 5.6% in September 2017. Employment in Ontario has risen steadily since the recession, reaching almost 7.2 million workers in September 2017, putting it well over the pre-recession level of roughly 6.6 million.

Return to graphic

The line chart shows Ontario’s full-time (left axis) and part-time (right axis) employment from January 2008 to September 2017. Ontario’s full-time employment has risen since the recession, reaching over 5.8 million in September 2017, above the recession level of less than 5.1 million. Part-time employment also increased over the same period: from over 1.2 million at the end of 2009 to almost 1.4 million in September 2017.

Return to graphic

The line chart shows Ontario’s employment in service-producing (left axis) and goods-producing (right axis) industries from January 2008 to September 2017. Ontario’s employment in service-producing industries declined slightly during the recession and rose from less than 5.1 million during the recession to over 5.7 million in September 2017. Employment in goods-producing industries declined sharply in the latter half of 2008 and the first half of 2009 and rose from a low of 1.3 million during the recession to over 1.4 million in September 2017, still below the pre-recession level.

Return to graphic

The bar chart shows Ontario’s employment in the five Ontario regions (Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area) in October 2008 (pre-recession), June 2009 (recessionary employment low) and September 2017. In October 2008, Ontario’s employment ranged from 373,000 in Northern Ontario to 3,026,000 in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). In June 2009, Ontario’s employment ranged from 350,000 in Northern Ontario to 2,954,000 in GTA. In September 2017, Ontario’s employment ranged from 352,000 in Northern Ontario to 3,438,000 in GTA.

Return to graphic

The line chart shows Ontario’s employment in the private sector (left axis), public sector (right axis) and self-employment (right axis) from January 2008 to September 2017. Ontario’s private sector was the only sector where employment declined significantly during the recession. Since the recessionary employment low in June 2009, private sector employment has been steadily increasing, reaching over 4.7 million in September 2017. Employment in the public sector rose from over 1.2 million during the recession to over 1.3 million in September 2017. Self-employment increased from about 1.0 million during the recession to over 1.1 million in September 2017.

Return to graphic

The bar chart shows Ontario’s employment for the three major age groups in October 2008 (pre-recession), June 2009 (recessionary employment low) and September 2017. For Ontarians aged 15 to 24, employment was 979,000 in October 2008, dropping to 889,000 in June 2009 and increasing to 961,000 in September 2017. For people aged 25 to 54, employment was 4,604,000 in October 2008, dropping to 4,430,000 in June 2009 and increasing to 4,640,000 in September 2017. For Ontarians aged 55 and older, employment was 1,067,000 in October 2008, dropping to 1,059,000 in June 2009 and increasing to 1,571,000 in September 2017.

Return to graphic

The line chart shows Ontario’s employment for males and females from January 2008 to September 2017. For men, employment declined from less than 3.5 million prior to the recession to less than 3.3 million in June 2009 and increased to over 3.7 million in September 2017. For women, employment declined from almost 3.2 million prior to the recession to about 3.1 million in June 2009 and increased to almost 3.5 million in September 2017.

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Full-Time, Part-Time Status

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between third quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by full-time and part-time status. Total employment increased by 2.3%, driven by a gain in full-time employment (+ 1.9%), while part-time employment also increased (+4.1%).

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Employment Sector

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between third quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment for the private sector, public sector and self-employment. Employment increased in all the three sectors. Private sector employment increased the most (+ 2.3%), followed by public sector employment (+2.1%) and self-employment (+2.4%).

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Above-, Below-Average-Wage Industries

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between third quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment for above- and below-average-wage industries, compared to the paid employment in all industries. Employment in above-average wage industries (+2.7%) increased more than employment in below-wage industries (+1.9%). Paid employment in all industries (excluding self-employment) rose by 2.3%. Above-average wage industries are defined as those with earnings above the average hourly earnings of all industries in 2016.

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Industry Goods-Producing Industries

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between third quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for goods-producing industries. Manufacturing experienced the largest employment growth (+2.2%), followed by construction (+1.8%) and forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (+6.9%). Two industries had employment declines: agriculture (-10.9%) and utilities (-8.2%).

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Industry Service-Producing Industries

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between third quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for service-producing industries. Six service-producing industries had an increase in employment. Professional, scientific and technical services experienced the biggest employment gain (+8.6%), followed by wholesale and retail trade (+4.9%) and health care and social assistance (+4.4%). Five industries experienced employment declines. The biggest employment decline occurred in business, building and other support services (-3.1%), followed by educational services (-2.1%).

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Employment Change By Occupation

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between third quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by broad occupational group. Six occupational groups experienced employment gains. Management occupations had the biggest employment gain (+10.3%), followed by sales and service occupations (+3.4%) and natural and applied sciences and related occupations (+9.8%). Employment in four occupational categories decreased. Occupations in education, law and social, community and government services experienced the biggest decline (-10.0%), followed by occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (-4.4%).

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Region

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between third quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment in the five Ontario regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area. Central Ontario gained the most jobs (+6.6%), followed by the Greater Toronto Area (+2.1%) and Northern Ontario (+1.0%). Employment declined in two regions: Eastern Ontario (-1.9%) and Southwestern Ontario (-0.6%).

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Unemployment Rates by Region

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by Ontario region, in the third quarter of 2017. Eastern and Northern Ontario had the highest unemployment rate at 6.5%, followed by GTA (6.4%), Southwestern Ontario (5.5%) and Central Ontario (5.1%).

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Participation Rates by Region

The horizontal bar chart shows participation rates by Ontario region, in the third quarter of 2017. Central Ontario had the highest participation rate at 66.9%, followed by GTA (66.6%), Eastern Ontario (63.5%), Southwestern Ontario (61.8%) and Northern Ontario (61.1%).

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Ontario Regions

The map shows Ontario’s five regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area. This map is based on groupings of Statistics Canada’s economic regions.

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Age Group

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between third quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment for the three major age groups, compared to the overall population. Ontarians aged 55 years and over gained the most jobs (+4.6%), followed by Ontarians aged 25 to 54 (+1.2%) and youth (+3.6%). Total employment (for population aged 15 and over) increased by 2.3% year-over-year.

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Unemployment Rates by Age Group

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates for the three major age groups, compared to the overall rate, in the third quarter of 2017. Youth (15 to 24 years old) had the highest unemployment rate at 11.3%, followed by core-aged population (25 to 54 years old) at 5.4% and older Ontarians (aged 55 and over) at 4.1%. The overall unemployment rate in the third quarter of 2017 was 6.0%.

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Participation Rates by Age Group

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates for the three major age groups, compared to the overall rate, in the third quarter of 2017. Core-aged population (25 to 54 years old) had the highest labour force participation rate at 85.4%, followed by youth (15 to 24 years old) at 64.9% and older Ontarians (aged 55 and over) at 38.4%. The overall participation rate in the third quarter of 2017 was 65.4%.

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Gender, Education Level and Immigrant Status (Core-Aged Population)

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between third quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by gender, education level and immigrant status for core-aged population (25 to 54 years old). By immigrant status, those born in Canada had the largest employment gain (+1.1%), followed by recent immigrants who have been in Canada for 10 years or less (+7.5%), while employment declined (-3.1%) for established immigrants (more than 10 years in Canada). By education level, employment increased for high school graduates (+5.3%) and university graduates (+2.3%), while employment declined for those with below high school education (-5.8%) and for those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (-1.3%). By gender, employment increased for women (+1.5%) and men (+1.0%).

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Unemployment Rates by Gender, Education Level and Immigrant Status (Core-Aged Population)

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by gender, education level and immigrant status for core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the third quarter of 2017. By immigrant status, recent immigrants (10 years or less in Canada) had the highest unemployment rate (9.0%), followed by established immigrants with more than 10 years in Canada (5.7%), and those born in Canada (4.5%). By education level, those with below high school education had the highest unemployment rate (8.8%), followed by high school graduates (6.2%), university graduates (5.2%) and those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (4.7%). The unemployment rate of women was 6.1%, while the unemployment rate of men was 4.8%.

Return to graphic

Quarterly Details: Participation Rates by Gender, Education Level and Immigrant Status (Core-Aged Population)

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates by gender, education level and immigrant status for core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the third quarter of 2017. By immigrant status, those born in Canada had the highest participation rate (87.4%), followed by established immigrants with more than 10 years in Canada (85.6%), and recent immigrants with 10 years or less in Canada (76.8%). By education level, university graduates had the highest participation rate (90.1%), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (88.1%), high school graduates (80.0%), and those with below high school education (64.1%). The male participation rate (90.2%) exceeded that of women (80.8%).

Return to graphic

In Focus: Employment Rate by Age Group, Older Workers Ontario, 1977-2017

The line chart shows employment rates for the three age groups: 55 to 59 years old, 60 to 64 years old and those aged 65 and over from 1977 to the first three quarters of 2017. All the three age groups have experienced increasing employment rates since the mid-1990s. The employment rate of 55 to 59 year olds has increased from below 56% in the early 1990s to over 70% in 2016 and the first three quarters of 2017. The employment rate of 60 to 64 year olds increased from about 33% in the mid-1990s to over 53% in the first three quarter of 2017. The employment rate of those aged 65 and over was below 10% until 2008 and has increased to 14% in the first three quarters of 2017.

Return to graphic

In Focus: Unemployment Rate by Age Group, 1990-2017

The line chart shows unemployment rates for the three age groups: 55 to 59 years old, 60 to 64 years old and 65 years and over from 1990 to the first three quarters of 2017. The unemployment rates of the three age groups peaked in the early 1990s, declined in the early 2000s and rose during the recent 2008-09 recession. Since the recession, the rates have declined to a level experienced prior to the recession. The unemployment rate of those aged 65 and over has been the lowest over this period, compared to 55-59 and 60-64 year olds.

Return to graphic

In Focus: Long-Term Unemployment as Share of Total Unemployment, aged 55+, 1977-2017

The line chart shows the share of the unemployed older workers who are unemployed long-term (27 weeks or longer) from 1977 to the first three quarters of 2017. The share peaked in 1992 and had a smaller local peak in 2010. Since then the share has declined to 34.4% in the first three quarters of 2017.

Return to graphic