: Ontario Employment Report

Fourth Quarter of 2017
(October, November, December)
Ontario Ministry of Finance

Table of Contents

Introduction

About the Ontario Employment Report

The Ontario Employment Report is released four times a year and provides an assessment of the current trends and developments in the Ontario labour market. The Ontario Employment Report is a companion report to the Ontario Economic Accounts, which provides an overall assessment of the current state of the Ontario economy. Most estimates in the Ontario Employment Report are based on Statistics Canada data. Its primary audience includes economists in both public and private sectors and credit rating agencies.

Methodological note

In the current issue, year-over-year change represents change between the averages in the fourth quarter of 2016 and the fourth quarter of 2017. Note that the Ontario Economic Accounts report primarily shows changes between the previous and the current quarter.

This report uses seasonally adjusted data in charts displaying data with a monthly frequency in the Overview and Employment Trends sections.

Unadjusted data is used in charts and tables showing the changes for the current quarter compared with the same quarter for the previous year. Unadjusted data is also used to calculate annual averages, year-to-date averages and 2017 fourth quarter averages.

Overview

Strength in Ontario’s Labour Market Continues

Year-over-year, Ontario’s fourth quarter employment increased by 171,800 (+2.4%).

On an annual basis, employment growth in Ontario accelerated in 2017, posting the strongest gain since 2003. Employment increased by 128,000 in 2017, following gains of 45,000 in 2015 and 76,000 in 2016. Ontario’s unemployment rate has also improved considerably. As of December 2017, Ontario’s unemployment rate was 5.5%, below the Canadian rate for the 33rd consecutive month. On an annual basis, the unemployment rate declined to 6.0% in 2017, the lowest since 2000.

As of December 2017, employment was 8.6% (+572,600 jobs) above the pre-recession peak and 13.3% (+845,100 jobs) above the recessionary low.  The unemployment rate in December 2017 was 4.1 percentage points below the recessionary level (9.6% in June 2009) and 1.1 percentage point below the pre-recession level (6.6% in October 2008).

Post-Recession Trends: Most New Jobs Are Full-Time

Since the recessionary low (June 2009), Ontario gained 765,000 full-time jobs and 80,000 part-time jobs. Full-time jobs represent over 90% of the total net job gain.

Since June 2009, employment in the service-producing industries has increased by 704,800, while employment in the goods-producing industries has increased by 140,300. Employment in the service-producing industries has been increasing more rapidly than in the goods-producing industries since the early 1980s.

Employment gains have differed across the five main geographic regions of the province. Since the recession, the most rapid gains in employment have occurred in the Greater Toronto Area and Central Ontario. Northern Ontario’s employment has edged down since the recession.

Post-Recession Trends: Strong Private Sector Job Growth

The most rapid job growth since the recession has been in the private sector. This sector experienced more job losses during the recession, compared to the public sector and self-employment.

Since June 2009, private sector monthly employment has increased by 614,800 jobs, while self-employment has increased by 117,600 jobs, and public sector employment has increased by 112,700. Private sector jobs represent over 70% of the economy-wide job gain.

Since the recessionary employment low, youth (15-24 years old) have gained 92,000 jobs (+10.3%), core-aged population (25-54 years old) have gained 218,200 jobs (+4.9%), while workers aged 55 and older have gained 534,900 jobs (+50.5%).

Since the recessionary low point, males have gained more jobs (+474,700) than females (+370,400). During the recession, employment declined more for males than females.

Quarterly Details

Type of Work

Year-over-year, full-time employment increased by 3.0% in the fourth quarter, while part-time employment rose by 0.1%.

Private sector jobs experienced the largest increase, followed by self-employment and public sector employment.

Meanwhile, the self-employed recorded the highest growth rate at 2.7%, followed by private sector employees at 2.5% and public sector employees at 1.9%.

Below-average wage industries experienced slightly higher employment growth at 2.5%, while employment in above-average industries rose by 2.3%, year-over-year.

Sector and Occupation

In the final quarter of 2017, there were significant employment gains in both the service-producing sector (+2.3%) and goods-producing sector (+3.0%), year-over-year.

Among goods-producing industries, the manufacturing sector added the most jobs, growing by 4.7% over the same period. Utilities and Agriculture experienced modest declines.

Overall, the wholesale and retail trade industry gained the most jobs but the transportation and warehousing industry experienced the most rapid growth (+7.5%). The business, building & other support services industry had the largest decline in employment year-over-year.

On a year-over-year basis, management occupations had the largest employment increase and the strongest rate of growth at 15.6%. Other occupation categories with positive employment growth were sales and service occupations; occupations in manufacturing and utilities; natural and applied sciences and related occupations; business, finance and administration occupations; health occupations and trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations.

Employment in the remaining occupational categories has decreased at varying rates, with the largest and most rapid decline in occupations in education, law and social, community and government services.

Geographic Region

Year-over-year, fourth quarter employment among the five Ontario regions increased the most in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)1 (+4.1%), followed by Central Ontario with a rise of 1.9%, Southwestern Ontario with a rise of 1.7% and Northern Ontario at 1.2%.

Eastern Ontario was the only region that experienced fourth quarter employment decline (-1.7%), year-over-year.

In the fourth quarter, the GTA had the highest unemployment rate (5.4%) and Central Ontario had the lowest unemployment rate (4.5%).

Quarterly labour force participation rates varied considerably among the economic regions. In the fourth quarter, participation rates ranged from 66.3% in the GTA to 58.8% in Northern Ontario.

[1] This economic region closely matches the GTA, the main exception being that it excludes the city of Burlington.

Age and Gender

Compared to the same quarter last year, workers aged 55 and older gained the most jobs, followed by core-aged (25-54 years old) workers and youth (15-24 years old). Both older workers (+7.1%) and youth (+5.6%) experienced above-average employment growth year-over-year. Females gained more jobs than males over the same period.

In the fourth quarter, older workers had the lowest unemployment rate at 3.9% and the unemployment rate of core-aged workers was 4.4%.  The unemployment rate of youth was 10.1%, the highest among the three major age groups. Females (4.7%) had a lower unemployment rate than males (5.4%) in the fourth quarter of 2017.

In the fourth quarter, core-aged workers had the highest participation rate at 85.2%, followed by youth at 59.1% and older workers at 39.1%. Females (60.7%) had a lower participation rate than males (68.8%) in the fourth quarter of 2017.

Education Level and Immigrant Status

In the final quarter of 2017, among core-aged population (25-54 years old), university graduates gained the most jobs, followed by high school diploma holders, year-over-year. Conversely, employment among holders of a postsecondary certificate/diploma declined. Employment of those with below high school education also declined.  Year-over-year, fourth quarter employment of core-aged very recent immigrants (5 years or less since landing) increased the most, followed by those born in Canada and recent immigrants (more than 5 to 10 years since landing). Conversely, the number of jobs held by established immigrants (10 years or more since landing) decreased.2

In the fourth quarter of 2017, core-aged university graduates had the lowest unemployment rate (3.8%), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate/diploma (4.2%), high school graduates (5.1%) and those lacking a high school diploma (7.2%). Among groups by immigrant status, core-aged workers born in Canada had the lowest unemployment rate (3.7%), followed by established immigrants (5.1%), recent immigrants (5.2%) and very recent immigrants (9.1%).

In the fourth quarter, among core-aged population groups by educational attainment, university graduates had the highest labour force participation rate and those lacking a high school diploma had the lowest rate. Among core-aged population groups by immigrant status, very recent immigrants had the lowest labour force participation rate, while those born in Canada had the highest rate.

[2] Changes in employment numbers may be influenced by several factors. For instance, the decline in the employment number of established immigrants is a result of the declining population cohort (-2.2%), a decline in the participation rate (-1.8 percentage points) and a slight increase in the unemployment rate (+0.2 percentage points).

In Focus

Vacancies, Vacancy Rates and Average Offered Wages

Ontario’s Vacancy Rate above the National Average

In the third quarter of 2017, Ontario’s vacancy rate3 (3.0%) was above the national vacancy rate (2.9%) for the 8th consecutive quarter. Ontario’s (3.0%) vacancy rates was second highest among provinces, after British Columbia (4.2%). Among Canadian provinces, Ontario had the second highest average offered hourly wage rate4 ($20.40), after Alberta ($21.35).

Most Vacancies Did Not Require Postsecondary Education

In the third quarter of 2017, 60.5% of vacancies did not require any minimum level of education or only required a high school diploma. About 7.1% of vacancies required an apprenticeship or trade certificate, 19.1% required a college or university certificate, 11.1% required a Bachelor’s degree, and 2.1% required a graduate degree. Around a half of all vacancies (48.9%) required less than one year of experience and about 11% of vacancies required 5 years of experience or more.

Most Vacancies in Occupational Groups with Above-Average Offered Wages

In the third quarter of 2017, over a half of vacancies were in broad occupational groups with above-average offered wage rates.5 Over a third (36.0%) of all vacancies were in sales and service occupations, with the average offered wage rate of $13.75 per hour, the lowest among broad occupational groups. The highest average hourly wage rate was offered for management occupations ($38.60), followed by natural and applied sciences and related occupations ($31.90).

[3] The job vacancy rate refers to the share of jobs that are unfilled out of all available payroll jobs.

[4] The average hourly wage offered by employers for vacant positions. It excludes overtime, tips, commissions and bonuses. Salaries are converted to hourly wages. The offered wage may be different from the actual wage paid once the position is filled.

[5] The average offered wage in the third quarter of 2017 was $20.40.

Data Tables

Overview of Annual Employment Ten-Year Review

  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Total Labour Force (000) 7,074.4 7,080.2 7,160.9 7,227.4 7,276.4 7,383.8 7,418.6 7,426.1 7,489.5 7,579.8
Participation Rate (%) 67.7 67.0 66.8 66.6 66.2 66.3 65.8 65.2 65.0 64.9
Male Participation Rate (%) 72.5 71.5 71.1 71.1 70.7 70.5 70.3 70.0 69.5 69.2
Female Participation Rate (%) 63.1 62.6 62.8 62.3 61.9 62.2 61.6 60.7 60.7 60.7
Total Employment (000) 6,610.3 6,432.7 6,537.8 6,658.4 6,702.6 6,823.4 6,877.9 6,923.2 6,999.6 7,128.0
Employment - Full-time (000) 5,366.8 5,174.0 5,256.1 5,373.5 5,412.0 5,489.5 5,540.0 5,618.2 5,672.6 5,778.7
Employment - Part-time (000) 1,243.5 1,258.7 1,281.8 1,284.8 1,290.6 1,334.0 1,337.9 1,305.0 1,327.0 1,349.3
Employment-Population Ratio (%) 63.3 60.9 61.0 61.4 60.9 61.2 61.0 60.8 60.7 61.0
Male Employment (000) 3,445.0 3,300.8 3,363.6 3,450.4 3,471.5 3,522.8 3,567.1 3,607.1 3,635.9 3,700.9
Female Employment (000) 3,165.2 3,131.9 3,174.2 3,207.9 3,231.1 3,300.6 3,310.8 3,316.1 3,363.7 3,427.1
Part-Time (% of total) 18.8 19.6 19.6 19.3 19.3 19.6 19.5 18.8 19.0 18.9
Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000) 1,502.0 1,365.0 1,380.6 1,408.7 1,415.3 1,397.5 1,382.0 1,401.4 1,418.1 1,432.6
Services-Producing Sector Employment (000) 5,108.3 5,067.7 5,157.3 5,249.7 5,287.3 5,425.9 5,495.9 5,521.7 5,581.4 5,695.4
Private Sector Employment (000) 4,346.2 4,194.7 4,268.2 4,339.7 4,373.0 4,447.0 4,517.0 4,540.7 4,597.3 4,690.6
Public Sector Employment (000) 1,260.5 1,232.8 1,254.7 1,294.3 1,286.0 1,314.0 1,305.4 1,294.1 1,306.4 1,329.1
Self-Employment (% of total) 15.2 15.6 15.5 15.4 15.6 15.6 15.3 15.7 15.7 15.5
Total Unemployment (000) 464.1 647.5 623.1 569.1 573.8 560.3 540.7 502.9 489.9 451.8
Unemployment Rate (%) 6.6 9.1 8.7 7.9 7.9 7.6 7.3 6.8 6.5 6.0
Male Unemployment Rate (%) 6.9 10.5 9.4 8.2 8.3 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.8 6.2
Female Unemployment Rate (%) 6.2 7.7 8.0 7.6 7.5 7.2 7.1 6.5 6.3 5.7
Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total) 13.7 18.8 24.9 24.1 22.7 22.9 22.8 20.0 19.9 19.5
Average Unemployment in Weeks 14.8 18.4 22.0 22.4 22.2 21.8 22.4 20.0 19.9 19.3
Youth Unemployment Rate (%) 13.8 17.6 17.4 15.9 17.0 16.2 15.7 14.7 14.0 12.3
25-54 y.o. Unemployment rate (%) 5.3 7.8 7.3 6.5 6.4 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.4 5.0
55+ y.o. Unemployment rate (%) 4.9 6.6 6.4 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.3 4.9 4.9 4.5
Average Weekly Wage Rate ($) 813.07 828.35 842.35 862.45 883.12 895.56 907.17 938.09 958.50 967.44
Average Hourly Wage Rate ($) 22.09 22.66 23.09 23.55 24.09 24.48 24.82 25.59 26.15 26.43
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Overview of Quarterly Employment Year-over-Year

  2016q1 2017q1 2016q2 2017q2 2016q3 2017q3 2016q4 2017q4
Total Labour Force (000) 7,384.5 7,458.6 7,544.2 7,602.6 7,559.8 7,658.9 7,469.4 7,598.9
Participation Rate (%) 64.4 64.2 65.6 65.2 65.5 65.4 64.5 64.6
Male Participation Rate (%) 68.8 68.6 69.9 69.6 70.3 69.9 69.0 68.8
Female Participation Rate (%) 60.2 60.0 61.5 61.0 60.9 61.1 60.2 60.7
Total Employment (000) 6,872.4 6,972.0 7,047.3 7,129.7 7,037.0 7,197.0 7,041.6 7,213.4
Employment - Full-time (000 5,515.5 5,583.5 5,721.7 5,799.3 5,804.3 5,913.7 5,648.7 5,818.4
Employment - Part-time (000) 1,356.9 1,388.5 1,325.6 1,330.4 1,232.7 1,283.3 1,392.9 1,394.9
Employment-Population Ratio (%) 59.9 60.0 61.3 61.2 61.0 61.5 60.8 61.4
Male Employment (000) 3,545.2 3,614.0 3,645.3 3,700.2 3,683.9 3,758.8 3,669.2 3,730.9
Female Employment (000) 3,327.2 3,358.0 3,401.9 3,429.5 3,353.0 3,438.2 3,372.4 3,482.5
Part-Time (% of total) 19.7 19.9 18.8 18.7 17.5 17.8 19.8 19.3
Goods-Producing Sector Employment (000) 1,375.7 1,368.0 1,417.1 1,424.9 1,456.6 1,472.2 1,423.2 1,465.2
Services-Producing Sector Employment (000) 5,496.7 5,604.1 5,630.2 5,704.7 5,580.4 5,724.8 5,618.4 5,748.2
Private Sector Employment (000) 4,466.8 4,561.5 4,612.1 4,666.5 4,682.1 4,789.5 4,628.0 4,744.9
Public Sector Employment (000) 1,310.1 1,332.9 1,334.6 1,351.3 1,258.6 1,285.1 1,322.1 1,347.1
Self-Employment (% of total) 15.9 15.5 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.5 15.5
Total Unemployment (000) 512.1 486.6 497.0 473.0 522.8 462.0 427.8 385.5
Unemployment Rate (%) 6.9 6.5 6.6 6.2 6.9 6.0 5.7 5.1
Male Unemployment Rate (%) 7.8 7.0 6.9 6.5 6.8 5.9 5.8 5.4
Female Unemployment Rate (%) 6.0 6.0 6.3 5.9 7.1 6.2 5.7 4.7
Long-Term (27 wks+) (% of total)  19.7 20.3 19.6 19.0 19.9 18.2 20.6 20.4
Average Unemployment in Weeks 19.6 20.4 20.1 18.9 20.1 17.9 20.1 20.1
Youth Unemployment Rate (%) 13.9 14.7 14.5 13.3 15.0 11.3 12.6 10.1
25-54 y.o. Unemployment rate (%) 6.0 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.6 5.4 4.7 4.4
55+ y.o. Unemployment rate (%) 5.5 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.1 4.3 3.9
Average Weekly Wage Rate ($) 959.29 957.27 958.34 962.03 960.09 970.13 959.29 979.94
Average Hourly Wage Rate ($) 26.27 26.34 26.12 26.28 25.99 26.28 26.27 26.80
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Graphic Descriptions

Overview: Ontario’s Labour Force

The chart indicates the change in Ontario’s employment in the fourth quarter of 2017, compared to the same quarter a year ago, and annual employment growth, compared to the previous year, as well as the unemployment rate in 2017 and in December 2017. In the fourth quarter of 2017, Ontario’s employment rose by 171,800 net new jobs, compared to the same quarter in the previous year. In 2017, employment increased by 128,000, compared to the 2016 employment level. The unemployment rate was 6.0% in 2017 and 5.5% in December 2017.

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Overview: Ontario’s Labour Market Strengthening

The combination line and area chart show Ontario’s unemployment rate (line chart) and employment (area chart) from January 2008 to December 2017. Ontario’s unemployment rate has trended downwards since the recession, reaching 5.5% in December 2017. Employment in Ontario has risen steadily since the recession, reaching over 7.2 million workers in December 2017, putting it well over the pre-recession level of roughly 6.6 million.

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The line chart shows Ontario’s full-time (left axis) and part-time (right axis) employment from January 2008 to December 2017. Ontario’s full-time employment has risen since the recession, reaching over 5.8 million in December 2017, above the recession level of less than 5.1 million. Part-time employment also increased over the same period: from over 1.2 million at the end of 2009 to almost 1.4 million in December 2017.

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The line chart shows Ontario’s employment in service-producing (left axis) and goods-producing (right axis) industries from January 2008 to December 2017. Ontario’s employment in service-producing industries declined slightly during the recession and rose from less than 5.1 million during the recession to over 5.7 million in December 2017. Employment in goods-producing industries declined sharply in the latter half of 2008 and the first half of 2009 and rose from a low of 1.3 million during the recession to over 1.4 million in December 2017, still below the pre-recession level.

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The bar chart shows Ontario’s employment in the five Ontario regions (Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area) in October 2008 (pre-recession), June 2009 (recessionary employment low) and December 2017. In October 2008, Ontario’s employment ranged from 373,000 in Northern Ontario to 3,026,000 in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). In June 2009, Ontario’s employment ranged from 350,000 in Northern Ontario to 2,954,000 in GTA. In December 2017, Ontario’s employment ranged from 349,000 in Northern Ontario to 3,511,000 in GTA.

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The line chart shows Ontario’s employment in the private sector (left axis), public sector (right axis) and self-employment (right axis) from January 2008 to December 2017. Ontario’s private sector was the only sector where employment declined significantly during the recession. Since the recessionary employment low in June 2009, private sector employment has been steadily increasing, reaching over 4.7 million in December 2017. Employment in the public sector rose from over 1.2 million during the recession to over 1.3 million in December 2017. Self-employment increased from about 1.0 million during the recession to over 1.1 million in December 2017.

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The bar chart shows Ontario’s employment for the three major age groups in October 2008 (pre-recession), June 2009 (recessionary employment low) and December 2017. For Ontarians aged 15 to 24, employment was 979,000 in October 2008, dropping to 889,000 in June 2009 and increasing to 981,000 in December 2017. For people aged 25 to 54, employment was 4,604,000 in October 2008, dropping to 4,430,000 in June 2009 and increasing to 4,648,000 in December 2017. For Ontarians aged 55 and older, employment was 1,067,000 in October 2008, dropping to 1,059,000 in June 2009 and increasing to 1,594,000 in December 2017.

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The line chart shows Ontario’s employment for males and females from January 2008 to December 2017. For men, employment declined from less than 3.5 million prior to the recession to less than 3.3 million in June 2009 and increased to over 3.7 million in December 2017. For women, employment declined from almost 3.2 million prior to the recession to about 3.1 million in June 2009 and increased to almost 3.5 million in December 2017.

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Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Full-Time, Part-Time Status

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by full-time and part-time status. Total employment increased by 2.4%, driven by a gain in full-time employment (+ 3.0%), while part-time employment also increased (+0.1%).

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Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Employment Sector

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment for the private sector, public sector and self-employment. Employment increased in all the three sectors. Private sector employment increased by  2.5%, while self-employment grew by +2.7% and public sector employment by 1.9%.

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Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Above-, Below-Average-Wage Industries

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment for above- and below-average-wage industries, compared to the paid employment in all industries. Employment in below-wage industries (+2.5%) increased more than employment in above-average wage industries (+2.3%). Paid employment in all industries (excluding self-employment) rose by 2.4%. Above-average wage industries are defined as those with earnings above the average hourly earnings of all industries in 2016.

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Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Industry, Goods-Producing Industries

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for goods-producing industries. Manufacturing experienced the largest employment growth (+4.7%), followed by construction (+2.6%) and forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas (+3.0%). Two industries had employment declines: agriculture (-7.1%) and utilities (-6.1%).The overall employment in goods-producing industries increased by 3.0%.

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Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Industry, Service-Producing Industries

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by industry for service-producing industries. Six service-producing industries had an increase in employment. Wholesale and retail trade experienced the biggest employment gain (+6.5%), followed by professional, scientific and technical services (+7.3%) and transportation and warehousing (+7.5%). Three industries experienced employment declines. The biggest employment decline occurred in business, building and other support services (-8.2%), followed by educational services (-0.6%). The overall employment in service-producing industries increased by 2.3%.

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Quarterly Details: Employment Change By Occupation

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by broad occupational group. Seven occupational groups experienced employment gains. Management occupations had the biggest employment gain (+15.6%), followed by sales and service occupations (+2.4%) and manufacturing and utilities (+8.3%). Employment in three occupational categories decreased. Occupations in education, law, social, community and government services experienced the biggest decline (-5.4%), followed by occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport (-13.6%).

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Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Ontario Region

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment in the five Ontario regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The GTA gained the most jobs (+4.1%), followed by Central Ontario (+1.9%), Southwestern Ontario (+1.7%) and Northern Ontario (+1.2%). Employment declined in one region: Eastern Ontario (-1.7%).

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Quarterly Details: Unemployment Rates by Ontario Region

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by Ontario region, in the fourth quarter of 2017. The Greater Toronto Area had the highest unemployment rate at 5.4%, followed by Northern Ontario (5.3%), Southwestern Ontario (5.1%), Eastern Ontario (4.8%) and Central Ontario (4.5%).

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Quarterly Details: Participation Rates by Ontario Region

The horizontal bar chart shows participation rates by Ontario region, in the fourth quarter of 2017. The Greater Toronto Area had the highest participation rate at 66.3%, followed by Central Ontario (64.7 %), Eastern Ontario (63.1%), Southwestern Ontario (61.9%) and Northern Ontario (58.8%).

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Quarterly Details: Ontario Regions

The map shows Ontario’s five regions: Northern Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Central Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area. This map is based on groupings of Statistics Canada’s economic regions.

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Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Age Group and Gender

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall population. Ontarians aged 55 years and over gained the most jobs (+7.1%), followed by Ontarians aged 15 to 24 (+5.6%) and Ontarians aged 25-54 (+0.3%). Total employment (for population aged 15 and over) increased by 2.4% year-over-year. Females (+3.3%) gained more jobs than males (+1.7%) year-over-year.

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Quarterly Details: Unemployment Rates by Age Group and Gender

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall rate, in the fourth quarter of 2017. Youth (15 to 24 years old) had the highest unemployment rate at 10.1%, followed by the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old) at 4.4% and older Ontarians (aged 55 and over) at 3.9%. The overall unemployment rate in the fourth quarter of 2017 was 5.1%. The male unemployment rate (5.4%) was higher than the female unemployment rate (4.7%) in the fourth quarter of 2017.

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Quarterly Details: Participation Rates by Age Group and Gender

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates for the three major age groups, as well as by gender, compared to the overall rate, in the fourth quarter of 2017. The core-aged population (25 to 54 years old) had the highest labour force participation rate at 85.2%, followed by youth (15 to 24 years old) at 59.1% and older Ontarians (aged 55 and over) at 39.1%. The overall participation rate in the third quarter of 2017 was 64.6%. The male participation rate (68.8%) was higher than female participation rate (60.7%) in the fourth quarter of 2017.

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Quarterly Details: Employment Change by Education Level and Immigrant Status (Core-Aged Population)

The horizontal bar chart shows a year-over-year (between fourth quarters of 2016 and 2017) change in Ontario’s employment by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old). By education level, employment increased for high school graduates (+4.0%) and university graduates (+2.2%), while employment declined for those with less than high school education (-6.0%) and for those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (-3.1%). By immigrant status, very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing had the largest employment gain (+18.0%), followed by those born in Canada (+0.5%) and recent immigrants with more than 5 to 10 years since landing (+1.5%), while employment declined (-4.5%) for established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing.

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Quarterly Details: Unemployment Rates by Education Level and Immigrant Status (Core-Aged Population)

The horizontal bar chart shows unemployment rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the fourth quarter of 2017. By education level, those with less than high school education had the highest unemployment rate (7.2%), followed by high school graduates (5.1%), those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (4.2%) and university graduates (3.8%). By immigrant status, very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing had the highest unemployment rate (9.1%), followed by recent immigrants with more than 5 to 10 years since landing (5.2%), established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (5.1%), and those born in Canada (3.7%).

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Quarterly Details: Participation Rates by Education Level and Immigrant Status (Core-Aged Population)

The horizontal bar chart shows labour force participation rates by education level and immigrant status for the core-aged population (25 to 54 years old), in the fourth quarter of 2017. By education level, university graduates had the highest participation rate (90.1%), followed by those with a postsecondary certificate or diploma (87.9%), high school graduates (79.4%), and those with less than high school education (62.1%). By immigrant status, those born in Canada had the highest participation rate (87.5%), followed by established immigrants with more than 10 years since landing (84.5%), recent immigrants with more than 5 to 10 years since landing (79.1%) and very recent immigrants with 5 years or less since landing (72.9%).

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In Focus: Vacancy and Wage Rates by Province

The horizontal bar chart shows job vacancy rates and average offered wage rates by province in the third quarter of 2017. British Columbia had the highest job vacancy rate (4.2%), followed by Ontario (3.0%) and Prince Edward Island (2.9%), while Newfound & Labrador had the lowest job vacancy rate (1.6%). The national average for job vacancy rates was 2.9%. Alberta offered the highest average wage rate ($21.35/hour), followed by Ontario ($20.40/hour) and Manitoba ($19.85/hour), while Prince Edward Island offered the lowest average wage rate ($14.70/hour). The national average offered wage rate was ($19.85/hour).

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In Focus: Proportion of Vacancies by Education and Experience Level

The horizontal bar chart shows the proportion of vacancies by educational and experience levels in the third quarter of 2017. The majority of job vacancies required either no minimum level of education (33.3%) or only required a high school diploma (27.2%), while 19.1% of job vacancies required a post-secondary certificate and 11.1% required a bachelor`s degree. Only 2.1% of job vacancies required a graduate degree and 7.1% of vacancies required an apprenticeship education. By level of experience, almost half (48.9%) of the job vacancies required less than 1 year of experience, followed by less than a third (30.2%) that required 1 year to less than 3 years of experience. About a tenth (9.9%) of the job vacancies required 3 years to less than 5 years of experience, while 8.9% required 5 years to less than 8 years of experience and 2.1% required 8 years or more experience.

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In Focus: Vacancy and Wage Rates by Broad Occupational Group

The horizontal bar chart shows the number of vacancies and the average offered wage by broad occupational groups in the third quarter of 2017. It groups occupations by groups with above-average offered wages and those with below-average offered wages. The highest number of job vacancies was in occupational groups with above-average offered wages (101,205), with the largest share coming from trades, transport & equipment operators (28,115), followed by business, finance & administration (22,775) and natural & applied sciences & related occupations (13,995). Although occupational groups with below-average offered wages comprised less of the total number of job vacancies (82,860), sales & service occupations (66,210) accounted for the largest job vacancy numbers across all occupational groups. The highest average offered wage rate was for management occupations ($38.60/hour), followed by natural & applied sciences & related occupations ($31.90/hour) and health occupations ($26.50/hour). The lowest average offered wage rate was in sales & service occupations ($13.75/hour).

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