: Ontario's Long-Term Report on the Economy
Chapter 3: The Changing Shape of Ontario’s Economy

INTRODUCTION

Economies are continuously adapting to changing market forces. In the case of Ontario, its firms and workers are adapting to such recent economic challenges as the high Canadian dollar, high oil prices and changing global trade patterns.

Ontario’s economy will continue to transform as new challenges and opportunities emerge. The government has worked to create strong economic fundamentals — including a strong business climate built around competitive tax rates, an effective regulatory system, a skilled and healthy workforce, and modern infrastructure — to help mitigate challenges and allow firms and workers to seize future opportunities.

Despite recent challenges, Ontario’s manufacturing sector is already adapting to changing global economic realities. Manufacturing will continue to constitute a significant part of Ontario’s economic output and employment. Advanced manufacturing, based on innovative technologies, significant private capital investment and highly trained workers, is able to take advantage of Ontario’s strong economic fundamentals to remain internationally competitive.

Global Economic Restructuring: The Future of Manufacturing in Advanced Economies

Ontario’s economy has undergone major restructuring over the past decade. The biggest change has been the relative decline of output and employment in the manufacturing sector. This is characteristic of a longer-run global shift towards greater output and employment in service industries. The transformation has also taken place in other advanced economies as lower value-added production in certain industries shifts to low-cost jurisdictions, a trend that accelerated during the global recession. As incomes rise, consumers also start to spend relatively more on services.

Manufacturing is generally a highly productive activity, and improvements in technology have allowed a smaller number of people to produce greater quantities of goods. The nominal value of manufacturing sales increased 67.7 per cent between 1993 and 2013 to almost $270 billion, a compound annual growth rate of 2.6 per cent.

This trend towards lower labour-intensity in manufacturing is comparable, for instance, to an earlier wave of global technological innovation in agriculture that allowed a smaller number of farm-sector workers to feed the world’s growing population. In advanced economies, this has led to agricultural sectors that produce more high-quality foods, while employing a smaller share of the workforce; in Canada, over 40 per cent of the labour force was employed in “agricultural pursuits” in 1901 compared to agricultural-sector employment of less than two per cent of workers in 2013.

In the short run, these changes might result in lower employment in the affected industries or temporarily higher unemployment. However, in the long run, improvements in productivity and technology have been the basis for increased economic well-being.

Canada’s strong resources sector has helped increase wages across the economy as well as contributed to the rise in the Canadian dollar exchange rate. While the increasing relative price of resources has contributed to rising national income in Canada, it has also increased the speed at which manufacturing jobs have moved to lower-cost jurisdictions.

A closer look at the economy in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 shows that the decline in manufacturing’s share of output and employment has been offset by gains in a wide variety of private and public service sectors, including knowledge-intensive industries such as professional, scientific and technical services, health care and financial services, many of which are traded internationally.1

Table 3.1 Nominal GDP Share of Major Ontario Sectors
(Per Cent)
Sector  2002 2007 2012
Goods-Producing Sector 30.7 25.6 23.2
Manufacturing 21.7 16.0 12.7
Other Goods-Producing Industries 8.9 9.6 10.5
Private Services-Producing Sector 53.8 55.7 56.2
Wholesale and Retail Trade 11.0 11.6 11.2
Transportation and Warehousing 4.0 3.7 3.8
Information and Cultural 3.8 3.7 3.8
Financial Services 9.2 8.9
Real Estate and Rental and Leasing 12.4 13.0
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services 5.4 6.2 6.6
Management, Administrative and Support 4.2 4.0
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation 1.0 0.8 0.8
Accommodation and Food Services 2.3 1.8 1.9
Other Services 2.4 2.0 2.0
Public-Sector Services 15.5 18.7 20.7
Education 4.5 5.4 5.9
Health Care and Social Assistance 5.9 6.5 7.1
Public Administration 5.1 6.8 7.7
Notes: Other Goods-Producing Industries includes agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, utilities and construction.
"–" indicates that disaggregated data are not available for the sector in that year.
Source: Statistics Canada.
Table 3.2 Employment Share of Major Ontario Sectors
(Per Cent)
Sector 1993 2003 2013
Goods-Producing Sector 26.3 26.4 20.6
Manufacturing 16.6 17.7 11.3
Other Goods-Producing Industries 9.7 8.7 9.3
Private Services-Producing Sector 50.2 52.7 55.0
Wholesale and Retail Trade 15.6 15.0 14.8
Transportation and Warehousing 4.4 4.7 4.8
Information and Cultural 2.6 2.5 2.3
Financial Services 5.0 4.9 5.6
Real Estate and Rental and Leasing 2.4 1.8 2.0
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services 5.4 7.2 8.3
Management, Administrative and Support 3.1 4.3 4.6
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation 1.6 2.3 2.3
Accommodation and Food Services 5.5 5.9 6.2
Other Services 4.5 4.2 4.1
Public-Sector Services 23.5 20.9 24.4
Education 7.1 6.1 7.5
Health Care and Social Assistance 10.0 9.8 11.4
Public Administration 6.4 5.0 5.4
Note: Other Goods-Producing Industries includes agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, utilities and construction.
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Accompanying the structural changes, Ontario’s economy has been growing over the past two decades. The province’s real gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012 was about $620 billion, a 14.9 per cent increase over 2002 and 69.1 per cent higher than in 1992. Employment in Ontario was about 6.9 million workers in 2013 — 10.7 per cent higher than in 2003 and 39.3 per cent higher than in 1993.

The relative decline in Ontario’s manufacturing sector is comparable to the decline in the U.S. manufacturing sector (see Chart 3.3). Factors including the low Canadian dollar helped to arrest Ontario’s manufacturing sector’s relative decline from the mid-1990s to around 2002. The exchange rate plunged to nearly 60 cents US per Canadian dollar at its lowest point, giving manufacturers a big cost advantage over competitors from south of the border. Despite the loss of this cost advantage, manufacturing still accounts for a larger share of the economy in Ontario than in the United States.

Other industrialized countries have also seen declines in manufacturing-sector shares of total employment. Chart 3.4 shows relative manufacturing employment for a selection of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Ontario’s share of manufacturing employment declined from slightly above the OECD average in 2006, before the onset of the recession, to slightly below the average in 2012.

Ontario business and labour will face continuing pressure to adjust and compete.

New and potentially disruptive innovations — such as 3D printing and advanced robotics — could bring about more changes to Ontario’s economy. They also provide opportunities for Ontario companies and could help sustain future economic growth in Ontario.

Manufacturers are adapting to new competitive realities by focusing on products and processes that can make them globally competitive. At the same time, many Ontario service-sector companies are finding ways to compete globally. Both goods- and services-producing industries will continue to play important roles in Ontario’s diverse economy in the future.

Ontario exporters have faced challenges in recent years in their most important market, the United States, which was the destination for 78 per cent of the province’s merchandise exports in 2013. The high Canadian dollar as well as increasing competition from emerging markets, especially China, led to a significant decline in Ontario’s share of all goods imported into the United States (see Chart 3.5). The level of Ontario exports to the United States declined from $153 billion in 2003 to $129 billion in 2013.

Ontario companies have been adapting to these challenges by diversifying their markets, reducing their reliance on the United States. As Chart 3.6 shows, the share of Ontario’s goods exports to both traditional markets, like the European Union, as well as fast-growing markets such as China and India, increased between 2003 and 2013.

Adaptation and Transformation

Ontario is responding to new economic realities and showing the flexibility to adapt and transform. In a fast-changing world, this dynamism must be sustained. Further improvement of Ontario’s productivity, the competitiveness of its firms and their ability to succeed in promising new markets, and the flexibility and skills of Ontario’s workforce are all important.

As noted in Chapter 5: Productivity in Ontario: Challenges and Opportunities, Ontario has fallen behind in improving productivity in the business sector compared to the United States. Increasing productivity performance will help sustain high incomes and allow the standard of living to rise in the future. This is especially important as the population ages, reducing labour force growth and putting greater pressure on the health care system.

There are ample opportunities for progress and improvement. For example, a recent Deloitte study showed that many Canadian companies do not recognize that they are underinvesting in productivity-enhancing activities, such as research and development (R&D), and they may be missing opportunities for profitable growth.2

Over the next 20 years, global demand from emerging market economies will grow rapidly and Ontario can benefit from it. Led by the Asia Pacific region, spending by the global middle class is expected to more than double to $56 trillion US by 2030. Canada is also currently pursuing new trade agreements that will help open and expand market opportunities abroad, including in South America, India, Japan and South Korea.  

Major developed economies such as the United States and Europe will also grow and increase demand for sophisticated products and services by businesses and consumers. Ontario will continue to be an attractive location for advanced manufacturing, which will increase its exports of equipment and services, and expand and broaden its global supply chain linkages. As well, Ontario will remain a gateway to a major North American consumer market of over 139 million people currently within a day’s drive.

Knowledge-based Industries

Knowledge-based industries are an increasingly important part of the provincial economy. As defined by the OECD, these industries are relatively intensive in their inputs of R&D, advanced technology and highly skilled human capital. Knowledge-based industries account for about 30 per cent of provincial GDP and employment in Ontario, and are more export-oriented than other industries. Knowledge-based industries are found in both the advanced manufacturing (e.g., aerospace) and services (e.g., financial services) sectors.

A positive trend within Ontario’s economy has been the growth of its science-based workforce. Scientists and engineers (S&E) are crucial for a knowledge-based economy, as they are strongly linked to innovative outcomes such as the introduction of new goods and services. The S&E workforce includes professional and technical occupations in the physical and life sciences, mathematics, engineering, architecture, and information technology. Ontario’s S&E workforce, over 530,000 workers in 2013, has grown faster overall than all employment since 1997, and accounted for 40 per cent of all Canadian S&E workers in 2013.

Transition in Business Services and Manufacturing

As Ontario’s economy transforms, other sectors such as financial services have become increasingly important.

Business and Financial Services Sector

The business and financial services sector is a good example of how Ontario is adapting and transforming. Led by the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area, Ontario continues to thrive as the leading business and financial services head-office centre of Canada. Business and financial services are also the province’s largest internationally traded industries, based on employment, interconnecting with and serving other global cities and markets both domestically and globally. This sector’s share of total employment increased from 12.8 per cent in 1993 to 16.4 per cent in 2013.

The share of employment in business services, which include professional services, such as architecture and engineering, and a wide range of other support services, grew from 7.8 per cent in 1993 to 10.8 per cent in 2013. The future growth of business services will continue to be driven by the shift to skills- and knowledge-based services, while globalization and remote digital distribution are broadening worldwide market opportunities.

The financial services sector, which includes banking, insurance and securities activities, is a major engine of growth for the Ontario economy. It directly accounts for 8.9 per cent of GDP and 5.6 per cent of employment. Its share of economy-wide output is almost twice as large as its share of jobs, indicating its above-average productivity.

From 1997 to 2012, real output in the financial services sector grew faster than the economy as a whole. Output growth will continue to be led by growing domestic and foreign demand, as well as innovative new technologies such as electronic and mobile payments. Demographic changes will also contribute to greater demand for financial services related to savings and retirement, and a shift from lending and borrowing to more advisory services.

Canada maintains its strong international reputation as the home of the soundest banks in the world, for the sixth consecutive year, according to the World Economic Forum. And Toronto continues to be the financial capital of Canada and a major global financial centre, home to many leading banks, securities dealers, insurers and pension funds. As a global financial centre, Toronto ranks strongly as number nine in the world on The Banker magazine ranking and fourteenth on the U.K.-based Global Financial Centres Index.

Canadian exports of financial services have more than doubled over the past 10 years, the best growth performance of any sector over this period.3 Financial services foreign direct investment (FDI) to other countries is currently the largest sector for outward FDI in Canada, with 40 per cent of the total, followed by manufacturing and mining.

The government will continue to work with the financial services sector to maintain and build on its global reputation and international rankings, raising its prospects for competitiveness and growth.

A financial sector that is strong, resilient and efficient plays an important role in enabling the long-term growth of GDP and productivity. It not only channels savings for business investment, but also promotes the efficient allocation of capital and wealth as well as modern and well-functioning financial transactions — all contributing to productivity. Ontario’s financial sector remains strong and stable, home to the soundest banks in the world and a stock market, the Toronto Stock Exchange, that is the seventh largest in the world based on market capitalization.

Ontario’s financial markets are well regulated and foster safe, stable and attractive investment opportunities. The government remains committed to modernizing securities laws and the regulatory framework to ensure sound and efficient markets. Ontario has long been a leader in advocating for the creation of a common securities regulator in Canada, a key to the country’s ability to sustain and grow its financial services industry. In 2013, Ontario, British Columbia and Canada announced an agreement in principle to establish a cooperative capital markets regulatory system, which is expected to be operational by July 1, 2015, and will better protect investors, support efficient capital markets and manage systemic risk.

Manufacturing

Ontario is the manufacturing heartland of Canada, accounting for 45 per cent of the nation’s manufacturing employment and 46 per cent of manufacturing GDP. As discussed, global trends have been reducing the relative size of manufacturing in advanced countries, including Canada.

Ontario is facing competitive challenges in some traditional labour- or energy-intensive industries. Some of its peer jurisdictions, such as the U.S. Great Lakes states, have also undergone significant restructuring in manufacturing, including cost-containment measures. A few have taken steps to weaken the bargaining power of organized labour, including through the introduction of “right to work” laws. Although anti-union laws have been in place in several U.S. states for many decades, they have not been considered a good fit for Ontario’s society and are not a necessary condition for success in manufacturing.

Additionally, the emergence of shale gas production has helped to contain energy costs. Some of these jurisdictions are now seeing a resurgence in manufacturing activity.

Ontario’s strong economic fundamentals will help maintain a resilient, productive and advanced manufacturing sector. New technologies, such as 3D printing and advanced robotics, hold the potential to accelerate changes in the structure of the manufacturing sector in the future.

Globalization continues to drive greater specialization in manufacturing, as businesses focus on the parts of the value chain of a product or service that they can produce most efficiently or they can add the most value to with better technologies and processes.

Ontario companies with innovative technologies and highly skilled workers will have an opportunity to increase their specialization in high value-added manufacturing activities to enhance their export potential. The Province’s Going Global Trade Strategy can help companies increase and diversify their access to export markets, enabling greater integration into global value chains. Growing resource industries in Western Canada will also provide opportunities for Ontario firms, including in providing both goods and services to the supply chain for oil-sands production.

The government will also continue to ensure Ontario’s business regulations are smart and impose the least burden on businesses, allowing them to achieve their goals.

Auto Sector

Ontario remains one of North America’s premier auto manufacturing jurisdictions, despite the shift of vehicle production to lower-cost jurisdictions such as Mexico and the southern U.S. states. To sustain a strong base of auto assembly and parts production in the province, the government is continuing to work with major auto assemblers to help anchor substantial investments in Ontario. Stakeholders, including labour, are also working to address issues related to the industry’s competitiveness in Ontario.

In addition to these investments in Ontario, the recent agreement in principle between Canada and the European Union for a Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement promises to provide access to new markets for Ontario’s motor vehicles and parts producers through tariff-reduction measures.

Information and Communications Technology (ICT)

Information and communications technologies are key enabling or platform technologies. As such, they will continue to underpin the competitiveness and efficient operation of private- and public-sector industries across the economy, while serving growing consumer needs and leisure activities at home and abroad. The increasing reliance on ICT in many industries, and in industrialized as well as fast-growing emerging nations, will continue to drive the sector’s growth over the coming decades.

The ICT sector’s share of total employment in Ontario increased from 3.3 per cent in 1993 to 4.0 per cent in 2013. This reflects continued innovation and the spread of new ICT technologies, including the digitization of a vast array of content and information enabled by mobile phones and other consumer and business devices. Computer software accounts for almost half of the sector’s employment and will continue to grow in the future.

Ontario’s growing ICT sector is underpinned by many competitive strengths, including a strong R&D base and skilled talent pool. This will help the sector continue to increase its share of total employment over the coming decades. The government supports the growth of Ontario’s ICT sector through investments in skills, education and modern infrastructure. The Province also provides R&D and investment support through grants, tax credits and other funding programs.

Life Sciences

Life sciences industries, which include pharmaceutical research and production, medical devices, and scientific and laboratory services, continue working to advance the frontier for research, products and services that help maintain and improve health and fight disease.

Life sciences industries account for around three per cent of Ontario business-sector employment and play an important role in the economy. The industries’ employment grew significantly from 1993 to 2013.

The scientific and laboratory services sector leads in employment growth. Employment in the sector increased by 127 per cent from 1993 to 2013; by 41 per cent in medical devices and equipment; and by 70 per cent in pharmaceutical production. Globally, the pharmaceutical sector is undergoing a structural change and consolidation of operations in the face of declining research productivity, rising cost-containment pressures and increased competition.  

The Ontario government is helping build production and research capacity as well as valuable partnerships with other jurisdictions to create and promote high-value products and services in the province.

Resource-based Industries

Although Ontario’s resource-based industries contribute relatively less than in other provinces, they will remain important contributors to the economy and are especially important in Northern Ontario.

Mining

Ontario remains Canada’s leading jurisdiction for mineral exploration and production as well as a major global player in mining finance. It ranks among the top 10 world producers of platinum, nickel and cobalt, and is a significant producer of gold, silver, copper and zinc. The province is also among a select group of jurisdictions that produces, processes and markets diamonds.

Ontario is a global centre for mining finance, with the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) and TSX Venture Exchange (TSXV) having more than half of the world’s listed mining companies and a market capitalization of almost $250 billion in 2013.

Continuing high resource prices are expected to help support significant growth in mineral exploration and mining development over the coming decades. The Ring of Fire area in Ontario’s Far North is rich in mineral resources, with known chromite and nickel deposits worth up to $50 billion. This will create enormous business and growth opportunities for local mining and supporting industries.

Forestry

A cornerstone of Ontario’s northern economy, the forest sector has faced significant challenges in recent years, due to both structural changes in the demand for many forest products, such as newsprint, as well as the effects of the global recession and the weak U.S. housing market. However, higher demand for lumber from the recovering U.S. house construction market and strong global demand for pulp are helping support higher prices and creating significant opportunities for Ontario companies. There are additional opportunities in the production of higher value-added products such as rayon fibre made from wood pulp. Along with bio-energy, these emerging opportunities are expected to drive the sector’s growth in coming years.

Agriculture and Agri-food

The agriculture sector provides the foundation for the economy of rural Ontario, while the food and beverage processing sector is one of Ontario’s most dynamic manufacturing sectors.

Increasingly, the world wants the high-quality, diverse foods produced in Ontario, creating opportunities for greater international trade. Premier Kathleen Wynne has challenged the broader agri-food sector, including wholesale and retail food services, to double its exports and create 120,000 new jobs by 2020.

Domestic markets also present opportunities for growth. Increasing interest in local foods as well as changing demand for higher-quality, more specialized products provide new opportunities. Ontario’s local food strategy, including the recently passed Local Food Act, will help increase access to, and awareness and sales of, Ontario-grown foods in the home market.

A stable and innovative farming sector is crucial for the future strength of the industry. Ontario business support for farmers, including the five-year Growing Forward 2 suite of agricultural support programs in association with the federal government, will continue to provide farmers with business risk management programs as well as programs to help improve productivity and innovation.

1 Data on nominal GDP shares by province and sector are only available from 2002 (CANSIM Table 379-0028). The longer Labour Force Survey data series for employment provides a 20-year perspective.

2 Deloitte LLP, “The Future of Productivity: A Wake-Up Call for Canadian Companies,” (2013).

3 K. Audet, M. Burt and G. Sutherland, “Ensuring the Future: Understanding the Importance of Toronto’s Financial Services Sector,” Conference Board of Canada, (November 2013).

Description of graphics

Chart 3.1: Service Sector’s Share of Ontario Employment Increasing

Line chart shows share of Ontario’s employment in manufacturing, other goods, broader public sector, and private services between 1976 and 2013. Other goods includes agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, utilities and construction. Broader public sector includes educational services, health care and social assistance, and public administration. Share of employment in manufacturing has decreased from 23.2 per cent in 1976 to 11.3 per cent in 2013. Share of employment in other goods has decreased from 12.3 per cent in 1976 to 9.3 per cent in 2013. Share of employment in the broader public sector has increased from 21.5 per cent in 1976 to 24.4 per cent in 2013. Share of employment in private services has increased from 43.0 per cent in 1976 to 55.0 per cent in 2013.

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Chart 3.2: Service Sector’s Share of Ontario GDP Increasing

Line chart shows share of Ontario’s GDP in manufacturing, other goods, broader public sector, and private services between 2002 and 2012. Other goods includes agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, utilities and construction. Broader public sector includes educational services, health care and social assistance, and public administration. Share of GDP in manufacturing has decreased from 21.7 per cent in 2002 to 12.7 per cent in 2012. Share of employment in other goods has increased from 8.9 per cent in 2002 to 10.5 per cent in 2012. Share of employment in the broader public sector has increased from 15.5 per cent in 2002 to 20.7 per cent in 2012. Share of employment in private services has increased from 53.8 per cent in 2002 to 56.2 per cent in 2012.

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Chart 3.3: Manufacturing Sector’s Declining Employment Share in Ontario Is Comparable to U.S. Change

Line chart shows employment share in manufacturing sector for Ontario and the U.S. between 1976 and 2013. U.S. data are manufacturing as a share of total non-farm employment, while Ontario data are manufacturing as a share of total employment. Ontario’s manufacturing employment share has declined from 23.2 per cent in 1976 to 11.3 per cent in 2013. U.S. manufacturing employment share has declined from 22.1 per cent in 1976 to 8.8 per cent in 2013.

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Chart 3.4: Manufacturing’s Share of Total Employment, Selected OECD Countries and Ontario

Bar chart shows 19 pairs of bars representing manufacturing’s employment share in 2006 and 2012 for Ontario, the OECD average and Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. The bars for all the jurisdictions in 2012 are lower than the associated bar in 2006.

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Chart 3.5: Ontario’s Exporters Losing Market Share in the United States

Bar chart showing the decline in percentage of U.S. merchandise imports sourced from Ontario from 8.7 per cent in 2003 to 5.5 per cent in 2013.

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Chart 3.6: Ontario Expanding Goods Exports to New Markets

Bar chart with four pairs of bars showing the share of Ontario goods exports going to four different regions in 2003 and 2013. The regions are the United States, the European Union, Fast-Growing Economies and the Rest of the World. The fast-growing economies include Argentina, Brazil, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea and Turkey. Share of Ontario’s goods exports to the United States declined from 91.5 per cent in 2003 to 78.4 per cent in 2013. Share of Ontario’s goods exports to the European Union increased from 3.8 per cent in 2003 to 9.5 per cent in 2013. Share of Ontario’s goods exports to fast-growing economies increased from 1.8 per cent in 2003 to 6.4 per cent in 2013. Share of Ontario’s goods exports to the rest of the world increased from 2.9 per cent in 2003 to 5.7 per cent in 2013.

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Chart 3.7: Ontario’s Science and Engineering (S&E) Workforce

Line chart shows change in science and engineering (S&E) workforce compared to total employment between 1990 and 2013. Data are indexed with 1990 set to 100. S&E workforce has been growing faster than overall employment. By 2013, S&E employment had increased to 182.6, while total employment had only increased to 132.4.

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Chart 3.8: Financial and Business Services: Share of Ontario Employment

Bar chart shows Ontario’s employment share in financial services and business services in 1993 and 2013. In 1993, financial services accounted for 5.0 per cent and business services accounted for 7.8 per cent of employment. In 2013, financial services accounted for 5.6 per cent and business services accounted for 10.8 per cent of employment.

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Chart 3.9: Information and Communications Technology (ICT): Share of Ontario Employment

Bar chart shows Ontario’s employment share in Computer Software, Other ICT Services, and ICT Manufacturing in 1993 and 2013. In 1993, Computer Software accounted for 0.8 per cent, Other ICT Services accounted for 1.5 per cent and ICT Manufacturing accounted for 1.0 per cent of Ontario employment. In 2013, Computer Software accounted for 2.1 per cent, Other ICT Services accounted for 1.6 per cent and ICT Manufacturing accounted for 0.3 per cent of Ontario employment.

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Chart 3.10: Employment Growth in Ontario’s Life Sciences Industries

Bar chart shows employment level in Medical Devices, Scientific and Laboratory Equipment and Pharmaceuticals in 1993 and in 2013. The Medical Devices sector employed 13,768 workers in 1993 and 19,358 workers in 2013. The Scientific and Laboratory Equipment sector accounted for 41,250 workers in 1993 and 93,755 workers in 2013. The Pharmaceuticals sector employed 15,902 workers in 1993 and 26,977 workers in 2013.

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